1379 You Can Solve This Magic Square

I knew that 1379 was the magic sum of a 14 × 14 magic square because 14² = 196 and
(196)(197)/(2·14) = 1379.

I know how to solve a 4 × 4 magic square and when the dimensions of the magic square are odd numbers. I can also solve squares whose dimensions can be factored into any of those.  Clearly, the dimensions of a 14 × 14 magic square don’t qualify. I wondered if there was a simple way to solve it.

I watched a video that explained how to use a 7 × 7 magic square to solve one that is
14 × 14
. You don’t have to watch the video to solve this magic square. Let me explain:

Notice that I’ve grouped the squares in the 14 × 14 magic square into 4 × 4 sub-grids. Now the magic square can behave more like a 7 × 7 magic square. Also, notice that the highest number in each sub-grid is 4 times the corresponding number in a 7 × 7 magic square.

You should notice that many of the numbers appear in order along the diagonal of the 7  × 7 square. The trickiest part for me is always the upper right corner.

Unfortunately, the 4 × 4 sub-grids are not all the same. In the video, they were labeled X, Y, and Z. To make it simpler, I’ve color-coded them so that you can know how to place the four numbers in each sub-grid from lowest to highest.

You can use this excel file,10 Factors 1373-1388 to first solve the 7 × 7 magic square and then use it and the three squares above to solve the 14 x 14 one. I would encourage you to give it a try! It is so satisfying to succeed!

Here’s a little more about the number 1379:

  • 1379 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 1379 = 7 × 197
  • 1379 has no exponents greater than 1 in its prime factorization, so √1379 cannot be simplified.
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 1, and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 × 2 = 4. Therefore 1379 has exactly 4 factors.
  • The factors of 1379 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below.

1379 is the hypotenuse of a Pythagorean triple:
196-1365-1379 which is 7 times (28-195-197)

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Mathemagical Properties of 1105

1105 is the magic sum of a 13 × 13 magic square. Why?
Because 13×13 = 169 and 169×170÷2÷13 = 13×85 = 1105.

If you follow the location of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, all the way to 169 in the magic square, you will see the pattern that I used to make that magic square. If you click on 10-factors-1102-1110  and go to the magic squares tab, you can use the same pattern or try another to create an 11 × 11, 13 × 13, or 15 × 15 magic square. The sums on the rows, columns, and diagonals will automatically populate as you write in the numbers so you can verify that you have indeed created a magic square.

1105 tiny squares can be made into a decagon so we say it is a decagonal number:

Those 1105  tiny squares can also be arranged into a centered square:

Why is 1105 the 24th Centered Square Number? Because it is the sum of consecutive square numbers:
24² + 23² = 1105

But that’s not all! 1105 is the smallest number that is the sum of two squares FOUR different ways:

24² + 23² = 1105
31² + 12² = 1105
32² + 9² = 1105
33² + 4² = 1105

1105 is also the smallest number that is the hypotenuse of THIRTEEN different Pythagorean triples. Yes, THIRTEEN! (Seven was the most any previous number has had.) It is also the smallest number to have FOUR of its Pythagorean triplets be primitives (Those four are in blue type.):

47-1104-1105 calculated from 24² – 23², 2(24)(23), 24² + 23²
105-1100-1105 which is 5 times (21-220-221)
169-1092-1105 which is 13 times (13-84-85)
264-1073-1105 calculated from 2(33)(4), 33² – 4², 33² + 4²
272-1071-1105 which is 17 times (16-63-65)
425-1020-1105 which is (5-12-13) times 85
468-1001-1105 which is 13 times (36-77-85)
520-975-1105 which is (8-15-17) times 65
561-952-1105 which is 17 times (33-56-85)
576-943-1105 calculated from 2(32)(9), 32² – 9², 32² + 9²
663-884-1105 which is (3-4-5) times 221
700-855-1105 which is 5 times (140-171-221)
744-817-1105 calculated from 2(31)(12), 31² – 12², 31² + 12²

Why is it the hypotenuse more often than any previous number? Because of its factors! 1105 = 5 × 13 × 17, so it is the smallest number that is the product of THREE different Pythagorean hypotenuses.

It gets 1 triple for each of its three individual factors: 5, 13, 17, 2 triples for each of the three ways the factors can pair up with each other: 65, 85, 221, and four primitive triples for the one way they can all three be together: 1105. Thus it gets 2º×3 + 2¹×3 + 2²×1 = 3 + 6 + 4 = 13 triples.

Speaking of factors, let’s take a look at 1105’s factoring information:

  • 1105 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 1105 = 5 × 13 × 17
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 1, 1, and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 × 2 × 2 = 8. Therefore 1105 has exactly 8 factors.
  • Factors of 1105: 1, 5, 13, 17, 65, 85, 221, 1105
  • Factor pairs: 1105 = 1 × 1105, 5 × 221, 13 × 85, or 17 × 65
  • 1105 has no square factors that allow its square root to be simplified. √1105 ≈ 33.24154

1105 is also a palindrome in four different bases, and I also like the way it looks in base 8:
It’s 10001010001 in BASE 2 because 2¹º + 2⁶ + 2⁴ + 2º = 1105,
101101 in BASE 4 because 4⁵ + 4³ + 4² + 4º = 1105,
2121 in BASE 8 because 2(8³) + 1(8²) + 2(8) + 1(1) = 1105,
313 in BASE 19 because 3(19²) + 1(19) + 3(1) = 1105
1M1 in BASE 24 (M is 22 base 10) because 24² + 22(24) + 1 = 1105

Last, but certainly not least, you wouldn’t think 1105 is a prime number, but it is a pseudoprime: the second smallest Carmichael number. Only Carmichael number 561 is smaller than it is.

A Carmichael number is a composite number that behaves like a prime number by giving a false positive to all of certain quick prime number tests:
1105 passes the test p¹¹⁰⁵ Mod 1105 = p for all prime numbers p < 1105. Here is an image of my computer calculator showing 1105 passing the first five tests! Only a prime number should pass all these tests.

1105 is indeed a number with amazing mathemagical properties!

870 If You Can Solve a 3×3 and a 4×4 Magic Square, Then You Can Solve a 12×12 Magic Square

It’s simple multiplication, folks!

3×4 = 12, so if you can solve a 3×3 Magic Square and a 4×4 Magic Square, then you can solve a 12×12 Magic Square, too.

Seriously. Really. It’s true! You really can solve a 12×12 Magic Square. I did it. Twice. You’ll see. You can do it, too.

That solution consists of sixteen 3×3 Magic Squares that use all the numbers from 1 to 144. The one in the corner is the most familiar one. The other ones are just that familiar Magic Square plus 9, 18, 27 and a few other multiples of 9. I used the 4×4 Magic Square below as a guide as I placed the sixteen 3×3 Magic Squares on the excel file I made, 12 factors 864-874.

4 x 4 Magic Square

make science GIFs like this at MakeaGif

There is 1 solution times 8 orientations (right-side-up, upside-down, etc.) for the 3×3 Magic Square, and there are 880 solutions times 8 orientations for the 4×4 Magic Square. That’s a lot of different possible solutions!

I also solved the 12×12 Magic Square by using nine 4×4 Magic Squares and placing them on the second grid in 12 factors 864-874. This arrangement also has many more possibilities than the one shown here.

You can easily solve your own 12×12 Magic Square by opening this excel file, 12 factors 864-874, going to the 12×12 Magic Square tab, and following the directions.

Here’s more about the awesome number 870:

29 × 30 = 870. That means 870 is 29 × (29+1), so 870 is the sum of the first 29 even numbers.

870 is the sum of the ten prime numbers from 67 to 107.

Because 5 and 29 are its factors, 870 is the hypotenuse of four Pythagorean triples: ( Note that 5 × 29 = 145)

  • 102-864-870, which is 6 times (17-144-145)
  • 144-858-870, which is 6 times (24-143-145)
  • 522-696-870, which is (3-4-5) times 174
  • 600-630-870, which is (20-21-29) times 30

870 has some interesting representations in other bases:

  • 606 in BASE 12, because 6(12²) + 0(12¹) + 6(12º) = 6(145) = 870
  • 303 in BASE 17, because 3(17²) + 0(17¹) + 3(17º) = 3(290) = 870
  • 110 in BASE 29, because 1(29²) + 1(29¹) + 0(29º) = 870
  • T0 in BASE 30 (T is 29 base 10), because 29(30¹) + 0(30º) = 29(30) = 870

8 + 0 + 7 + 8³ + 0³ + 7³ = 870. Thank you Stetson.edu for that fun fact.

  • 870 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 870 = 2 × 3 × 5 × 29
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 1, 1, 1, and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 16. Therefore 870 has exactly 16 factors.
  • Factors of 870: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 15, 29, 30, 58, 87, 145, 174, 290, 435, 870
  • Factor pairs: 870 = 1 × 870, 2 × 435, 3 × 290, 5 × 174, 6 × 145, 10 × 87, 15 × 58, or 29 × 30
  • 870 has no square factors that allow its square root to be simplified. √870 ≈ 29.495762