A Multiplication Based Logic Puzzle

Posts tagged ‘horse race’

900 Pick Your Pony. Who’ll Win This Amount of Factors Horse Race?

I really like this rhyme that I saw for the first time this week (even though it’s all over the net):

Hey diddle diddle, the median’s the middle,
You add then divide for the mean.
The mode is the one that appears the most,
And the range is the difference between.

All of the numbers from 801 to 900 have at least 2 factors, but no more than 32 factors. 32 – 2 = 30, so 30 is the range of the amount of factors.

There are 100 numbers from 801 to 900. If you list the amount of factors for each number, then arrange those amounts from smallest to largest, the amounts that will appear in the 50th and 51st spots will both be 6. That means that 6 is the median amount of factors. If we had different amounts in the 50th and 51st spots, we would average the two amounts together to get the median.

If you add up the amounts of factors that the numbers from 801 to 900 have, you will get 794. If you divide 794 by 100, the number of entries, then you will know that 7.94 is the mean amount of factors.

What about the mode? Which amount of factors appears the most? That’s why we are having a Horse Race, to see if more numbers have 2 factors, 3 factors, 4 factors, or a different amount of factors. So pick your pony. We’ll see which amount wins, and we’ll find out what the mode is at the same time.

The contenders are these amounts: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 24, 27, 32.

I should tell you that only perfect squares can have an odd amount of factors, so you probably don’t want to pick an odd amount.

Here are some interesting facts about the numbers from 801 to 900 that might help you decide which pony to pick.

  • We had the smallest two consecutive numbers with exactly 12 factors: (819, 820)
  • We had the fourth prime decade: (821, 823, 827, 829). All four of those numbers are prime numbers and have exactly two factors.
  • We had five consecutive numbers whose square roots can be reduced: (844, 845, 846, 847, 848). Three of those numbers had 6 factors, one had 10, and one had 12.
  • We also had 840, the smallest number with exactly 32 factors
  • 900 is the smallest number with exactly 27 factors. Coincidentally, the amount that is the mode will appear 27 times.

As the following table shows, there are 42 integers from 801 to 900 that have square roots that can be simplified. 42 is more than any previous set of 100 numbers has given us. Even still we are still holding close to just under 40% of integers having square roots that can be simplified.

Okay. If you’ve picked your pony, NOW you can watch the Horse Race:

900 Horse Race
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Hmm…

The race was exciting for a second or two.

As you can see from the Horse Race the mode is 4. How did your pony do?

Here’s a little more about the number 900:

900 is the sum of the fourteen prime numbers from 37 to 97.

24² + 18² = 900

900 is the hypotenuse of two Pythagorean triples:

  • 252-864-900, which is 24² – 18², 2(24)(18), 24² + 18². It is also (7-24-25) times 36.
  • 540-720-900, which is (3-4-5) times 180.

900 is the sum of the interior angles of a heptagon (seven-sided polygon).

  • 900 is a composite number and a perfect square.
  • Prime factorization: 900 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 × 5 × 5, which can be written 900 = 2² × 3² × 5²
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 2, 2 and 2. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (2 + 1)(2 + 1)(1 + 1) = 3 × 3 × 3 = 27. Therefore 900 has exactly 27 factors.
  • Factors of 900: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 36, 45, 50, 60, 75, 90, 100, 150, 180, 225, 300, 450, 900
  • Factor pairs: 900 = 1 × 900, 2 × 450, 3 × 300, 4 × 225, 5 × 180, 6 × 150, 9 × 100, 10 × 90, 12 × 75, 15 × 60, 18 × 50, 20 × 45, 25 × 36, or 30 × 30
  • Taking the factor pair with the largest square number factor, we get √900 = (√30)(√30) = 30.

 

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800 Which Pony Will Take Second Place?

Every 100 posts I summarize the amount of factors of the previous 100 numbers.

MANY of the numbers from 701 to 800 have FOUR factors, and any other number-of-factors doesn’t even come close. For this Horse Race, SECOND place is much more interesting as there are several lead changes. I’ve shorten the track so the second place number-of-factors can reach the finish line.

So go ahead, pick the number-of-factors pony you think will come in SECOND place. Your best bets are 2, 6, 8, 12, 16 OR the second row of 4 factors!

Make your selection, then click on the graphic below to see how your pony does!

800-horse-race-01

Now let me tell you a little bit about the number 800.

800-prime-factorization

  • 800 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 800 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 5 x 5, which can be written 800 = (2^5) x (5^2)
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 5 and 2. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (5 + 1)(2 + 1) = 6 x 3 = 18. Therefore 800 has exactly 18 factors.
  • Factors of 800: 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 16, 20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 80, 100, 160, 200, 400, 800
  • Factor pairs: 800 = 1 x 800, 2 x 400, 4 x 200, 5 x 160, 8 x 100, 10 x 80, 16 x 50, 20 x 40 or 25 x 32
  • Taking the factor pair with the largest square number factor, we get √800 = (√400)(√2) = 20√2 ≈ 28.28427.

800-factor-pairs

800 is the sum of four consecutive primes:

  • 193 + 197 + 199 + 211 = 800

800 is a palindrome in three different bases.

  • 2222 BASE 7 because 2(7^3) + 2(49) + 2(7) + 2(1) = 800 (This fact also means that x^3 + x² + x – 399 can be divided evenly by x – 7.)
  • 242 BASE 19 because 2(19²) + 4(19) + 2(1) = 800
  • PP BASE 31 (P is 25 base 10) because 25(31) + 25(1) = 800

800 is the sum of two squares two different ways:

  • 28² + 4² = 800
  • 20² + 20² = 800

That being true, it follows that 800 is the hypotenuse of two Pythagorean triples:

  • 480-640-800 which is 160 times 3-4-5
  • 224-768-800 which is 32 times 7-24-25

 

800 is also the sum of three squares:

  • 20² + 16² + 12² = 800

This chart summarizes the number of factors for the first 800 numbers and indicates that 39% of those numbers have square roots that can be simplified (reduced).

800-totals

In case you didn’t click on the Horse Race image before, here it is, no clicking required:

800 Horse Race

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700 Pick Your Pony! Who will win this Amount of Factors Horse Race?

  • 700 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 700 = 2 x 2 x 5 x 5 x 7, which can be written 700 = (2^2) x (5^2) x 7
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 2, 2 and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (2 + 1)(2 + 1)(1 + 1) = 3 x 3 x 2 = 18. Therefore 700 has exactly 18 factors.
  • Factors of 700: 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 20, 25, 28, 35, 50, 70, 100, 140, 175, 350, 700
  • Factor pairs: 700 = 1 x 700, 2 x 350, 4 x 175, 5 x 140, 7 x 100, 10 x 70, 14 x 50, 20 x 35 or 25 x 28
  • Taking the factor pair with the largest square number factor, we get √700 = (√100)(√7) = 10√7 ≈ 26.457513.

Because this is my 700th post, I think I’ll have another horse race. Some numbers from 601 to 700 have exactly 2 factors, 4 factors, and so forth up to 24 factors. (Only perfect squares can have an odd number of factors.)

Which number from 1 to 24 will win this amount of factors horse race? Which number will come in second place, or third place? Cheering for more than one pony will make the race even more interesting.

Here we see that the numbers 2, 6, & 8 are the first ones out of the gate. Click on the graphic to see the rest of this very thrilling horse race:

605

Every hundred posts I also like to focus on the percentage of numbers whose square roots can be simplified.

700 is divisible by 100 so its square root can easily be simplified: √700 = 10√7.

273 of the first 700 numbers have reducible square roots. That’s exactly 39%.

The rest of the numbers, 427, which is 41% of the first 700 numbers, do not have reducible square roots.

Here’s a table breaking down the amount of factors in each group of one hundred integers and the number of reducible square roots.

1-700 Amount of Factors

Here are some facts about the number 700.

700 is a palindrome in several bases:

  • 4A4 BASE 12; note A is equivalent to 1o in base 10, and 4(144) + 10(12) + 4(1) = 700
  • PP BASE 27; note P is equivalent to 25 in base 10, and 25(27) + 25(1) = 700
  • KK Base 34; note K is equivalent to 20 in base 10, and 20(34) + 20(1) = 700

700 is the sum of four consecutive prime numbers: 167 + 173 + 179 + 181.

Here is a beautiful painting of a horse race that I saw on twitter:

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