# 1724 Carol of the Ukrainian Bells

### Today’s Puzzle:

As I sit in my warm, peaceful house, I often think about the people of Ukraine whose country has been ravaged by war. Many of them, including children, are also facing a winter with no heat. My heart goes out to them.

My childhood was so unlike theirs. I was able to attend school classes and learn about many different topics without fear of dying. In Junior High School choir class, one of the songs I learned was called Carol of the Bells. I just recently learned from Slate magazine of the song’s Ukrainian roots:

A little over a hundred years ago Mykola Leontovych, a Ukrainian composer, arranged several of his country’s folk songs together in a piece he titled Shchedryk. Tragically, he was murdered by a Russian assassin on January 23, 1921, in the Red Terror, when the Bolsheviks were intent on eliminating Ukrainian leaders, intellectuals, and clergy.

During this time of great unrest, the Ukrainian National Chorus performed Shchedryk around the world and in cities large and small in the United States. One performance was even given at the famed Carnegie Hall on October 5, 1922. The haunting melody was heard by Peter Wilhousky who penned alternate words for it: Hark how the bells, Sweet silver bells,…

Now it is one of our most beloved Christmas carols. I am grateful I learned the words and tune in junior high, although I wish I had learned of its Ukrainian history then as well.

These two bells puzzles are reminiscent of Ukraine’s flag. Long may it wave. Write each number 1 to 10 in the yellow columns and rows so that the given clues are the products of the numbers you write.

Here are the same puzzles if you prefer to use less of your printer ink.

### Factors of 1724:

• 1724 is a composite number.
• Prime factorization: 1724 = 2 × 2 × 431, which can be written 1724 = 2² × 431.
• 1724 has at least one exponent greater than 1 in its prime factorization so √1724 can be simplified. Taking the factor pair from the factor pair table below with the largest square number factor, we get √1724 = (√4)(√431) = 2√431.
• The exponents in the prime factorization are 2 and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (2 + 1)(1 + 1) = 3 × 2 = 6. Therefore 1724 has exactly 6 factors.
• The factors of 1724 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below.

### More About the Number 1724:

1724 is the difference of two squares:
432² – 430² = 1724.

1724₁₀ = 464₂₀, a palindrome, because
4(20²) + 6(20¹) + 4(20°) = 1724.

# 321 I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day

321 is made solely from three consecutive numbers so it can be evenly divided by 3.

• 321 is a composite number.
• Prime factorization: 321 = 3 x 107
• The exponents in the prime factorization are 1 and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 x 2 = 4. Therefore 321 has exactly 4 factors.
• Factors of 321: 1, 3, 107, 321
• Factor pairs: 321 = 1 x 321 or 3 x 107
• 321 has no square factors that allow its square root to be simplified. √321 ≈ 17.916
Print the puzzles or type the factors on this excel file: 10 Factors 2014-12-08

One Christmas day about the time of the Civil War, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote a poem he titled “Christmas Bells”. 5/7 of that poem later became the song known as “I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day”. You can read the poem’s complete original text here.