A Multiplication Based Logic Puzzle

Posts tagged ‘factor trees’

780 is the 39th Triangular Number

  • 780 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 780 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 5 x 13, which can be written 780 = (2^2) x 3 x 5 x 13
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 2, 1, 1, and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (2 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 x 3 x 2 x 2 = 24. Therefore 780 has exactly 24 factors.
  • Factors of 780: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 13, 15, 20, 26, 30, 39, 52, 60, 65, 78, 130, 156, 195, 260, 390, 780
  • Factor pairs: 780 = 1 x 780, 2 x 390, 3 x 260, 4 x 195, 5 x 156, 6 x 130, 10 x 78, 12 x 65, 13 x 60, 15 x 52, 20 x 39, or 26 x 30
  • Taking the factor pair with the largest square number factor, we get √780 = (√4)(√195) = 2√195 ≈ 27.92848.

780-factor-pairs

There are MANY ways to make factor trees for 780. Here are just three of them:

780 Factor Trees

Stetson.edu informs us that (7 + 5)(8 + 5)(0 + 5) = 780.

780 is the sum of consecutive prime numbers two different ways:

  • 59 + 61 + 67 + 71 + 73 + 79 + 83 + 89 + 97 + 101 = 780 (10 consecutive primes).
  • 191 + 193 + 197 + 199 = 780 (4 of my favorite consecutive primes).

26 and 30 are both exactly 2 numbers away from their average 28, so 780 can be written as the difference of two squares:

780 = 26 x 30 = (28 – 2)(28 + 2) = 28² – 2² = 784 – 4.

(It can be written as the difference of two squares three other ways, but I won’t list them here.)

Because 5 and 13 are both factors of 780, it is the hypotenuse of FOUR Pythagorean triangles making each of these equations true:

  • 192² + 756² = 780²
  • 300² + 720² = 780²
  • 396² + 672² = 780²
  • 468² + 624² = 780²

780 can be written as the sum of three perfect squares two different ways:

  • 26² + 10² + 2² = 780
  • 22² + 14² + 10² = 780

780 BASE 10 is palindrome QQ BASE 29. (Q is 26 in BASE 10.) Note that 26(29) + 26(1) = 780.

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 + 11 + 12 + 13 + 14 + 15 + 16 + 17 + 18 + 19 + 20 + 21 + 22 + 23 + 24 + 25 + 26 + 27 + 28 + 29 + 30 + 31 + 32 + 33 + 34 + 35 + 36 + 37 + 38 + 39 = 780, making 780 the 39th triangular number. Since 20 is in the exact middle of that list of numbers, 780 is also the 20th hexagonal number.

Triangular numbers are interesting, but are they good for anything? Here’s one good thing:

Count the Terms of Sums Squared

There are 26 letters in the English alphabet. 39 variables would use the alphabet exactly one and one half times, but that’s okay because we can use upper case letters the second time around:

(a + b + c + . . . + x + y+ z + A + B + C + . . . + K + L + M)² has exactly 780 terms because it has 39 single variables, and 780 is the 39th triangular number.

780 is the 39th triangular number because 39⋅40/2 = 780.

A couple of months ago I saw a fascinating image on twitter. It is a square made with 1001 dots representing the numbers from -500 to +500 with zero in the exact middle. The triangular numbers are represented by the “+” pattern seen here. If we added about 600 more dots to the square, -780 and +780 would also lie on that +.

//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js

Half of all triangular numbers are also hexagonal numbers. If there were enough dots, then -780 and +780 would also be among the dots forming the “-” pattern representing the hexagonal numbers. 780 is the 20th hexagonal number because 20(2⋅20-1) = 780.

 

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672 Is it too soon to pick out a tree?

672 can make MANY factor trees.  Here I’ve pictured only a few of the possibilities, one for each of its factor pairs (excluding 1 x 672).

Is it too soon to pick out a tree?

672 Factor Trees

Every one of those trees has the prime factors of 672: 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, and 7, but finding them on each tree might be a challenge because I didn’t distinguish the prime factors from the other factors. Some of those prime factors might seem like they are lost in a pile of leaves. Can you find them on each tree?

672 is the 9th number to have 24 factors. Here is a number line highlighting all nine of those numbers and the distances between them.

24 Factors Number Line

Notice the difference between 672 and the previous number with 24 factors is 12, a record low.

You might get the impression looking at the number line that numbers having 24 factors might be much more common from now on. That may be true, nevertheless, the next number after 672 to have exactly 24 factors is 756 which is 84 numbers away and well past 720 the smallest number to have 30 factors.

Indeed infinitely many numbers have 24 factors, but probably 672 is the last one that will get much attention.

The numbers in the factor pair 24 and 28 are each exactly two numbers away from 26, their average. That means we are just 2² numbers away from 26².

In other words, 672 equals 26² – 2² which can be factored into (26 + 2)(26 – 2) so (26 + 2)(26 – 2) = 28 x 24 = 672.

  • 672 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 672 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 7, which can be written 672 = (2^5) x 3 x 7
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 5, 1, and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (5 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 6 x 2 x 2 = 24. Therefore 672 has exactly 24 factors.
  • Factors of 672: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 12, 14, 16, 21, 24, 28, 32, 42, 48, 56, 84, 96, 112, 168, 224, 336, 672
  • Factor pairs: 672 = 1 x 672, 2 x 336, 3 x 224, 4 x 168, 6 x 112, 7 x 96, 8 x 84, 12 x 56, 14 x 48, 16 x 42, 21 x 32, or 24 x 28
  • Taking the factor pair with the largest square number factor, we get √672 = (√16)(√42) = 4√42 ≈ 25.92296.

650 is the sum of all the clues in this Level 1 puzzle

1² + 2² + 3² + 4² + 5² + 6² +7² + 8² + 9² +10² + 11² + 12²  = 650

Thus 650 is the 12th square pyramidal number and can be calculated using 12(12 +1)(2⋅12 + 1)/6.

If you add up all the clues in today’s Find the Factors puzzle, you will get the number 650. However, if you print the puzzle from the excel file, one of the clues is missing because it isn’t needed to find the solution.

650 is the hypotenuse of seven Pythagorean triples!

  • 72-646-650
  • 160-630-650
  • 182-624-650
  • 250-600-650
  • 330-560-650
  • 390-520-650
  • 408-506-650

Can you find the greatest common factor of each triple? Each greatest common factor will be one of the factors of 650 listed below the puzzle.

650 is the hypotenuse of so many Pythagorean triples because it is divisible by 5, 13, 25, 65, and 325 which are also hypotenuses of triples. The smallest three numbers to be the hypotenuses of at least 7 triples are 325, 425, and 650.

Since 25 x 26 = 650, we know that (25-1)(26 + 1) = 650 – 2. Thus 24 x 27 = 648.

650 Puzzle

Print the puzzles or type the solution on this excel file: 12 Factors 2015-10-19

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  • 650 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 650 = 2 x 5 x 5 x 13, which can be written 650 = 2 x (5^2) x 13
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 1, 2, and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(2 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 x 3 x 2 = 12. Therefore 650 has exactly 12 factors.
  • Factors of 650: 1, 2, 5, 10, 13, 25, 26, 50, 65, 130, 325, 650
  • Factor pairs: 650 = 1 x 650, 2 x 325, 5 x 130, 10 x 65, 13 x 50, or 25 x 26
  • Taking the factor pair with the largest square number factor, we get √650 = (√25)(√26) = 5√26 ≈ 25.495098.

650 Trees

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640 Fall Factor Trees and Level 5

Because it is fall, and 640 has many factors, I decided to make factor trees using fall colors. Get out your rakes!

640 factor trees

There are many other possible factor trees for 640, but raking leaves can be a lot of work, so I only made two of them.

640 is the hypotenuse of the Pythagorean triple 384-512-640.

Stetson.edu informs us that 640 = 16!!!!!!, but if you type 16!!!!!! into a calculator, you will get an error message as soon as you type !!.

16!!!!!! ≠ (((((16!)!)!)!)!)!

There are 6 !’s so 16!!!!!! = 16(16-6)(16-12) = 16 x 10 x 4.

Here is this week’s Level 5 puzzle:

640 Puzzle

Print the puzzles or type the solution on this excel file: 12 Factors 2015-10-05

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  • 640 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 640 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 5, which can be written 640 = (2^7) x 5
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 7 and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (7 + 1)(1 + 1) = 8 x 2 = 16. Therefore 640 has exactly 16 factors.
  • Factors of 640: 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 16, 20, 32, 40, 64, 80, 128, 160, 320, 640
  • Factor pairs: 640 = 1 x 640, 2 x 320, 4 x 160, 5 x 128, 8 x 80, 10 x 64, 16 x 40, or 20 x 32
  • Taking the factor pair with the largest square number factor, we get √640 = (√64)(√10) = 8√10 ≈ 25.298221

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640 Logic

630 Factor Trees and Level 2

630 is the 7th number with exactly 24 factors. So far, the seven numbers counting numbers with 24 factors are 360, 420, 480, 504, 540, 600, and 630. No counting number less than 630 has more than 24 factors.

Two of those seven numbers make up the Pythagorean triple 378-504-630. Which factor of 630 is the greatest common factor of those three numbers in the triple?

Here are a few of the MANY possible factor trees for 630.

630 Factor Trees

630 is the sum of the six prime numbers from 97 to 113.

630 is the 35th triangular number because (35 x 36)/2 = 630. It is also the 18th hexagonal number because 18(2 x 18 – 1) = 630.

630 is a triangular number that is a multiple of other triangular numbers in more ways than you probably want to know:

  • 630 is three times the 20th triangular number, 210, because 3(20 x 21)/2 = 630.
  • 630 is 6 times the 14th triangular number, 105, because 6(14 x 15)/2 = 630.
  • 630 is 14 times the 9th triangular number, 45, because 14(9 x 10)/2 = 630.
  • 630 is 30 times the 6th triangular number, 21, because 30(6 x 7)/2 = 630.
  • 630 is 42 times the 5th triangular number, 15, because 42(5 x 6)/2 = 630.
  • 630 is 63 times the 4th triangular number, 10, because 63(4 x 5)/2 = 630.
  • 630 is 105 times the 3rd triangular number, 6, because 105(3 x 4)/2 = 630.
  • 630 is 210 times the 2nd triangular number, 3, because 210(2 x 3)/2 = 630.
  • and finally, 630 is 630 times the 1st triangular number, 1, because 630(1 x 2)/2 = 630

630 Puzzle

Print the puzzles or type the solution on this excel file: 10 Factors 2015-09-28

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  • 630 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 630 = 2 x 3 x 3 x 5 x 7, which can be written 630 = 2 x (3^2) x 5 x 7
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 1, 2, 1, and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(2 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 x 3 x 2 x 2 = 24. Therefore 630 has exactly 24 factors.
  • Factors of 630: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 14, 15, 18, 21, 30, 35, 42, 45, 63, 70, 90, 105, 126, 210, 315, 630
  • Factor pairs: 630 = 1 x 630, 2 x 315, 3 x 210, 5 x 126, 6 x 105, 7 x 90, 9 x 70, 10 x 63, 14 x 45, 15 x 42, 18 x 35, or 21 x 30
  • Taking the factor pair with the largest square number factor, we get √630 = (√9)(√70) = 3√70 ≈ 25.09980.

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630 Factors

420 Factor Trees

Did you know that the sum of all the prime numbers between 100 and 110 equals 420? Yes, 101 + 103 + 107 + 109 = 420.

Since 20 × 21 = 420, we know that 420 is the sum of the first 20 EVEN numbers. Thus,

  • 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 + 10 + 12 + 14 + 16 + 18 + 20 + 22 + 24 + 26 + 28 + 30 + 32 + 34 + 36 + 38 + 40 = 420.

420 is the smallest number that can be divided evenly by all the natural numbers from 1 to 7.

420 has a LOT of factors, more than most people would think it does.  In fact, of all of the numbers from 1 to 420, there is only one number, 360, that has as many factors as 420 has.

There are 4 different prime numbers that can divide evenly into 420. Here are those factor trees:

420 prime number factor trees

Many, but not all, of the factors of 420 are listed somewhere on those four trees.

  • 420 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 420 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 5 x 7, which can be written 420 = (2^2) x 3 x 5 x 7
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 2, 1, 1, and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (2 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 3 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 24. Therefore 420 has exactly 24 factors.
  • Factors of 420: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15, 20, 21, 28, 30, 35, 42, 60, 70, 84, 105, 140, 210, 420
  • Factor pairs: 420 = 1 x 420, 2 x 210, 3 x 140, 4 x 105, 5 x 84, 6 x 70, 7 x 60, 10 x 42, 12 x 35, 14 x 30, 15 x 28, or 20 x 21
  • Taking the factor pair with the largest square number factor, we get √420 = (√4)(√105) = 2√105 ≈ 20.4939

Each factor pair, except 1 x 420, can make its own factor tree. Here are some factor trees featuring the other seven factor pairs:

420 other factor trees

If I hadn’t made all the prime numbers in red, it’s possible that one or more of the prime numbers might get forgotten. That is why I prefer the cake method for finding the prime factorization of a number. All of the prime numbers are listed in numerical order on the outside of the cake.

Finding prime factors of 420

 

326 Tiny Christmas Factor Tree

  • 326 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 326 = 2 x 163
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 1 and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 x 2 = 4. Therefore 326 has exactly 4 factors.
  • Factors of 326: 1, 2, 163, 326
  • Factor pairs: 326 = 1 x 326 or 2 x 163
  • 326 has no square factors that allow its square root to be simplified. √326 ≈ 18.055

Even though 326 is a three digit number, there is only one way to construct its factor tree, two if you count its mirror image. Either way is illustrated here. Below them is a Christmas factor tree puzzle that is a lot more interesting than the factor tree for 326.

2014-50 Level 4

Print the puzzles or type the factors on this excel file: 12 Factors 2014-12-15

2014-50 Level 4 Logic

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