1683 Grave Marker

Today’s Puzzle:

It’s almost Halloween. I hope you enjoy this grave-marker puzzle. Write the numbers from 1 to 12 in both the first column and the top row so that those numbers and the given clues make a multiplication table.

Here’s the same puzzle, but it won’t use up all your printer ink.

Factors of 1683:

  • 1683 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 1683 = 3 × 3 × 11 × 17, which can be written 1683 = 3² × 11 × 17.
  • 1683 has at least one exponent greater than 1 in its prime factorization so √1683 can be simplified. Taking the factor pair from the factor pair table below with the largest square number factor, we get √1683 = (√9)(√187) = 3√187.
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 2, 1, and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (2 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 3 × 2 × 2 = 12. Therefore 1683 has exactly 12 factors.
  • The factors of 1683 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below.

More About the Number 1683:

1683 is the hypotenuse of a Pythagorean triple:
792-1485-1683, which is (8-15-17) times 99.

1683 is the difference of two squares in SIX different ways:
842² – 841² = 1683,
282² – 279² = 1683,
98² – 89² = 1683,
82² – 71² = 1683,
58² – 41² = 1683, and
42² – 9² = 1683.
That last one means we are 81 numbers away from the next perfect square. I also highlighted a cool-looking difference.

1680, 1681, 1682, 1683, and 1684 are the second smallest set of FIVE consecutive numbers whose square roots can be simplified.

1680 square roots

269 and Five More Consecutive Square Roots

  • 269 is a prime number.
  • Prime factorization: 269 is prime.
  • The exponent of prime number 269 is 1. Adding 1 to that exponent we get (1 + 1) = 2. Therefore 269 has exactly 2 factors.
  • Factors of 269: 1, 269
  • Factor pairs: 269 = 1 x 269
  • 269 has no square factors that allow its square root to be simplified. √269 ≈ 16.401

How do we know that 269 is a prime number? If 269 were not a prime number, then it would be divisible by at least one prime number less than or equal to √269 ≈ 16.401. Since 269 cannot be divided evenly by 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, or 13, we know that 269 is a prime number.

As I have previously written, 844, 845, 846, 847, and 848 are the smallest FIVE consecutive numbers whose square roots can be simplified. Here are the second smallest FIVE with the same property.

1680 square roots

The first number in the second set, 1680, equals 2 x 840 which is very close to the first number in the first set. Will strings of five consecutive numbers with reducible square roots occur about once every 850 numbers?

We can find the number of factors for these numbers by examining their prime factorizations.

1680 prime factorization

The number of factors for each of the integers in this second set ranges from 3 to 40. Only two of the integers have the same number of factors. Finding another string of four or more numbers that have reducible square roots as well as the same number of factors may be difficult.