A Multiplication Based Logic Puzzle

Archive for the ‘Level 4 Puzzle’ Category

818 How Many Steps Do You Take Each Day?

My brother, Doug, recently visited me. He told me about his goal to get 11,000 steps every day. The American Heart Association recommends 10,000 steps a day.  Is it worth trying to get a thousand steps more than the recommended number?

My brother shared the cool mathematics of an 11,000 daily step goal with me, and now I want to share it with you:

Now I think 11,000 steps a day is a very worthy goal! It helps me see the big picture of 1,000,000 steps each quarter and 4,000,000 steps each year and that will help me be more likely to meet the 11,000 step goal EVERY day.

I wear a Fitbit to keep track of my steps everyday. A fellow blogger recently wrote a fun poem about wearing a Fitbit to keep track of steps, and it made me smile.

It will take you far fewer than 11,000 steps to complete this multiplication table puzzle. It isn’t the most difficult puzzle I make, but it can still be a challenge:

Print the puzzles or type the solution on this excel file: 12 factors 815-820

Now here is a little bit about the number 818:

  • 818 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 818 = 2 x 409
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 1 and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 x 2 = 4. Therefore 818 has exactly 4 factors.
  • Factors of 818: 1, 2, 409, 818
  • Factor pairs: 818 = 1 x 818 or 2 x 409
  • 818 has no square factors that allow its square root to be simplified. √818 ≈ 600699

818 looks the same right side up or upside down so we call it is a strobogrammatic number.

23² +  17² = 818

Finally, 818 can be found in these two Pythagorean triple equations:

  • 240² + 782² = 818²
  • 818² + 167280² = 167282²

 

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812 How Many Triangles in All?

Here’s a puzzle for you. How many total triangles are there in the figure below?

Okay, if you guessed 812 because this is my 812th post, you would be right. But what if you were asked that question in some real world situation where accessing the internet to get the answer isn’t permitted. How would you know the answer then?

True, you might have memorized the formula I mentioned in 658-How Many Triangles Point Up? How Many Triangles Point Down? How Many Triangles in All?:

  • The total number of triangles = ⌊n(n+2)(2n+1)/8⌋ where the brackets mean round decimals DOWN to the closest integer. 
  • Here n = 14, so the number of triangles is 14×16×29/8 = 812. Rounding down wasn’t necessary since the product of two consecutive even numbers is always divisible by 8.

Still, you probably wouldn’t remember that formula unless you had seen it VERY recently or you have a photographic memory.

You could actually COUNT all the triangles. In the post about 658 total triangles, I noted that the 13 rows of small triangles formed a total of 169 of the smallest triangles, but I suggested that it would be easier to ignore that nice square number and instead count the number of triangles pointing UP separately from the number pointing DOWN. You will add up a lot of triangular numbers as you sum up the number of them pointing up and again as you sum up the number pointing down.

Making a chart of the number of triangles pointing UP would be easy. It’s just a list of triangular numbers in order. However, the chart for the ones pointing down might be confusing because you don’t use all of the triangular numbers, and the ones you use will be different for an even number of rows than for an odd number of rows. For example,

  • the pointing DOWN portion of the chart for 14 rows of triangles below uses these seven triangular numbers: 1, 6, 15, 28, 45, 66, and 91,
  • while the pointing DOWN chart for 13 rows of triangles uses six different triangular numbers: 3, 10, 21, 36, 55, and 78.

Here is a chart listing the number of triangles of any size that are contained in a triangular figure made with 14 rows of small triangles. Interesting note: Because 14 + 2 = 16, a multiple of 8, the total number of triangles in this case will be divisible by 14, the number of line segments on each side.

Making such a chart works. However, remembering  which triangular numbers to use and how many you should use, especially when counting the odd number of rows of triangles pointing DOWN, might be difficult.

Today I was thinking about triangular numbers and their relationship to square numbers:

  • The sum of two consecutive triangular numbers always makes a square number. On the chart above, I’ve paired up certain consecutive triangular numbers by coloring them the same color. The sizes of the triangles being paired together by like colors are not the same size (with one exception), but their sums are nevertheless square numbers every time.
  • Thus, we also can come up with a single list of numbers to add to arrive at the total number of triangles as illustrated below. This has made me changed my mind about using those square numbers to help count! Notice how every other number on each list below, including the last number to be added, is a square number.

Of the methods discussed in this post, this one that includes square numbers might be the easiest one to remember. Here are the steps I used to find the total number of triangles:

  • Count the rows and determine if that number is even or odd.
  • Write the triangular numbers in order until the amount of numbers written equals the number of rows.
  • If the number of rows is even, replace the 2nd, 4th, 6th, etc. entries with corresponding square numbers: 4, 16, 36, etc.
  • If the number of rows is odd, replace the 1st, 3rd, 5th, etc entries with corresponding square numbers: 1, 9, 25, etc.
  • Add all the numbers remaining in the list. The sum will be the total number of triangles for that many rows of small triangles.

Okay, that puzzle was rather difficult and took a while to explain. You may find this Level 4 puzzle to be easier:

Print the puzzles or type the solution on this excel file: 10-factors 807-814

Here’s a little more about the number 812:

  • 812 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 812 = 2 x 2 x 7 x 29, which can be written 812 = (2^2) x 7 x 29
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 2, 1, and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (2 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 3 x 2 x 2 = 12. Therefore 812 has exactly 12 factors.
  • Factors of 812: 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 28, 29, 58, 116, 203, 406, 812
  • Factor pairs: 812 = 1 x 812, 2 x 406, 4 x 203, 7 x 116, 14 x 58, or 28 x 29
  • Taking the factor pair with the largest square number factor, we get √812 = (√4)(√203) = 2√203 ≈ 28.4956 (That was three multiples of 7)

812 = 28 × 29, which means it is the sum of the first 28 even numbers.

  • Thus, 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 + . . .  + 52 + 54 + 56 = 812

It also means that we are halfway between 28² and 29², or halfway between 784 and 841. The average of those two numbers is 812.5.

AND it means that 28² + 29² – 1 = 2(812) = 2(28 × 29)

Since 29 is one of its factors, 812 is also the hypotenuse of a Pythagorean triple:

  • 560-588-812 which is 28 times 20-21-29.

805 and Level 4

23 × 35 = 805 so we shouldn’t be surprised that 805 is palindrome NN in BASE 34. N is the same as 23 in base 10. Thus NN can be derived from 23(34) + 23(1) = 23(34 + 1) = 23 × 35 = 805. NN obviously is divisible by 11 like all 2 digit palindromes are.

Since 23 = 22 + 1, should we expect that 805 is a palindrome in BASE 22? No, and that is for the same reason that not all multiples of 11 are palindromes.

Finding the factors in today’s puzzle shouldn’t be very difficult, but the last few might be trickier than the rest:

Print the puzzles or type the solution on this excel file: 10-factors 801-806

  • 805 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 805 = 5 x 7 x 23
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 1, 1, and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 x 2 x 2 = 8. Therefore 805 has exactly 8 factors.
  • Factors of 805: 1, 5, 7, 23, 35, 115, 161, 805
  • Factor pairs: 805 = 1 x 805, 5 x 161, 7 x 115, or 23 x 35
  • 805 has no square factors that allow its square root to be simplified. √805 ≈ 28.37252

805 is the hypotenuse of a Pythagorean triple:

  • 483-644-805, which is 3-4-5 times 161

805 can be written as the sum of three squares four ways:

  • 25² + 12² + 6² = 805
  • 24² + 15² + 2² = 805
  • 20² + 18² + 9² = 805
  • 18² + 16² + 15² = 805

 

 

 

798 Cupid’s Arrow and Target

Here are two puzzles that go together and yet look out of sync. Sometimes cupid’s arrow reaches its target, and sometimes it doesn’t.

798-puzzle

Print the puzzles or type the solution on this excel file: 12-factors-795-799

Here’s a little about the number 798:

798 is made from three consecutive numbers (7, 8, and 9), so it is divisible by three. The middle number, 8, is not divisible by three, so 798 is NOT divisible by nine.

798 is a palindrome in two bases:

  • 666 BASE 11 because 6(121) + 6(11) + 6(1) = 798
  • 383 BASE 15 because 3(225) + 8(15) + 3(1) = 798

798 is also the sum of two consecutive prime numbers: 397 + 401 = 798.

798 can be written as the sum of three squares four different ways:

  • 26² + 11² + 1² = 798
  • 25² + 13² + 2² =798
  • 23² + 13² + 10² = 798
  • 22² + 17² + 5² = 798

Here is 798’s factoring information:

  • 798 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 798 = 2 x 3 x 7 x 19
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 1, 1, 1, and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 16. Therefore 798 has exactly 16 factors.
  • Factors of 798: 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14, 19, 21, 38, 42, 57, 114, 133, 266, 399, 798
  • Factor pairs: 798 = 1 x 798, 2 x 399, 3 x 266, 6 x 133, 7 x 114, 14 x 57, 19 x 42, or 21 x 38
  • 798 has no square factors that allow its square root to be simplified. √798 ≈ 28.24889.

798-factor-pairs

791 and Level 4

To see if 791 is divisible by 7, you could try either one of these divisibility tricks:

  • 791 is divisible by 7 because 79 – 2(1) = 77 which obviously is divisible by 7.
  • 791 is divisible by 7 because 79 + 5(1) = 84 which most people know is 12 × 7.

791-puzzle

Print the puzzles or type the solution on this excel file: 10-factors-788-794

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  • 791 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 791 = 7 x 113
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 1 and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 x 2 = 4. Therefore 791 has exactly 4 factors.
  • Factors of 791: 1, 7, 113, 791
  • Factor pairs: 791 = 1 x 791 or 7 x 113
  • 791 has no square factors that allow its square root to be simplified. √791 ≈ 28.12472222.

791-factor-pairs

791 is the hypotenuse of Pythagorean triple 105-784-791 which is 15-112-113 times 7.

791 is also the sum of seven consecutive prime numbers:

  • 101 + 103 + 107 + 109 + 113 + 127 + 131 = 791

785 and Level 4

  • 785 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 785 = 5 x 157
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 1 and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 x 2 = 4. Therefore 785 has exactly 4 factors.
  • Factors of 785: 1, 5, 157, 785
  • Factor pairs: 785 = 1 x 785 or 5 x 157
  • 785 has no square factors that allow its square root to be simplified. √785 ≈ 28.01785.

785-factor-pairs

Now for today’s puzzle:

785-puzzle

Print the puzzles or type the solution on this excel file: 12-factors-782-787

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Here’s a little more about the number 785:

785 is the sum of two squares two different ways:

  • 28² + 1² = 785
  • 23² + 16² = 785

785 is also the sum of three squares three different ways:

  • 26² + 10² + 3² = 785
  • 25² + 12² + 4² = 785
  • 19² + 18² + 10² = 785

Because its prime factorization is 5 × 157 (two numbers that are also the sum of two squares), 785 is the hypotenuse of four Pythagorean triples, two of which are primitive triples:

  • 56-783-785 primitive calculated from 2(28)(1), 28² – 1², 28² + 1²
  • 273-736-785 primitive calculated from 23² – 16², 2(23)(16), 23² + 16²
  • 425-660-785 which is 5 times 85-132-157
  • 471-628-785 which is 157 times 3-4-5

785 is also a palindrome in two different bases:

  • 555 BASE 12; note that 5(144) + 5(12) + 5(1) = 785
  • 101 BASE 28; note that 1(28²) + 0(28) + 1(1) = 785

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785-logic

 

778 and Level 4

  • 778 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 778 = 2 x 389
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 1 and 1. Adding one to each and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 x 2 = 4. Therefore 778 has exactly 4 factors.
  • Factors of 778: 1, 2, 389, 778
  • Factor pairs: 778 = 1 x 778 or 2 x 389
  • 778 has no square factors that allow its square root to be simplified. √778 ≈ 27.892651.

778-factor-pairs

Here’s today’s puzzle. Hints for solving it are in a table at the end of the post.

 

778 Puzzle

Print the puzzles or type the solution on this excel file: 10-factors-2016

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Stetson.edu informs us that 778 is the number of ways  a 1 x 5 rectangle can be surrounded by other 1 x 5 rectangles. I’m not going to publish or even find all 778 possible ways, but here is one of them:

778 Surround

27² + 7² = 778.

We can use those numbers to compute a Pythagorean triple: 2(27)(7), 27² – 7², 27² + 7², which turns out to be 378-680-778, and thus 378² + 680² = 778².

778 is also the sum of three squares three different ways:

  • 25² + 12² + 3² = 778
  • 24² + 11² + 9² = 778
  • 21² + 16² + 9² = 778

778 is palindrome 1G1 BASE 21 (G is 16 base 10)

That palindrome means that 1(21²) + 16(21) + 1(1) = 778.

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778 Logic

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