1408 Powers of 2 in the Multiplication Table

number, puzzle, factors, factor pairs, prime factorization,

I have a 10 × 10 multiplication table poster in my classroom to help students who haven’t memorized the times’ table yet. We have to spend our time going over more advanced topics. One student struggled with the idea of raising two to a power. I went to the poster and boxed in all the powers of two on it. While I boxed them in, I recited, “2⁰ = 1, 2¹ = 2, 2² = 2×2 = 4, 2³ = 2×2×2 = 8, 2⁴ = 2×2×2×2= 16, 2⁵ = 2×2×2×2×2= 32, 2⁶ = 2×2×2×2×2×2=64.”

I liked the pattern those powers of two made on the poster so I made this 32×32 multiplication chart on my computer and continued the pattern.

I expect the chart has many things for you to notice and wonder about. You could also do it with powers of 3, or another number, but you would need to use a much bigger multiplication table to show as many powers.

Now I’ll tell you a little bit about the number 1408.

1408 is not a power of 2, but it is 11 times a power of 2, specifically, it is 11 × 2⁷.

  • 1408 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 1408 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 11, which can be written 1408 = 2⁷ × 11
  • 1408 has at least one exponent greater than 1 in its prime factorization so √1408 can be simplified. Taking the factor pair from the factor pair table below with the largest square number factor, we get √1408 = (√64)(√22) = 8√22
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 7 and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (7 + 1)(1 + 1) = 8 × 2 = 16. Therefore 1408 has exactly 16 factors.
  • The factors of 1408 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below.

Here is a festive multilayered factor cake for 1408:

So delicious! And here is a nicely balanced factor tree showing all of its prime factors:

 

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1407 Please Stop Making Excuses for My Dear Aunt Sally

Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally. You’ve heard math teachers say that phrase many times. Supposedly, Aunt Sally is supposed to help you remember Parenthesis, Exponents, Multiplication/Division, Addition/Subtraction as the correct order to do operations when simplifying math problems.

I say, please stop making excuses for my dear Aunt Sally!

My Dear Aunt Sally. People think they know her, but too often they really don’t. Lots of people have tried to please her. Sometimes they succeed, but just as often they fail. She seems to relish the fact that so many people misunderstand her.

I clearly remember my first year teaching a classful of seventh graders at a new school. I was trying to develop a good relationship with my students and be the best teacher I could be. One of the first lessons I was supposed to teach them was order-of-operations.

I wish I knew about the better mnemonic PEMA back then, but I didn’t. Instead, I brought my dear Aunt Sally to class with me: I introduced her to my students and tried to make it clear that multiplication and division were equals so they must be done in order from left to right whichever one comes first. The same is true of addition and subtraction.

“That’s not what we learned last year!” students responded. Their teacher last year brought Aunt Sally to class, too. but she gave them the impression that all multiplication was supposed to be done before any division, and the same for addition and subtraction. Yeah, Aunt Sally went to class their previous year and didn’t say a word when their teacher gave them misinformation. Now that I was telling them the truth about her, she didn’t speak up and tell them I was right either. Instead, she allowed me to lose credibility with my students that day as I insisted on sticking with the truth. If I had retold the lie, the students would have believed me more. I also discovered that for some problems in the textbook, you would get it right either way.

I seriously couldn’t believe that their teacher from the last year would have given them the wrong information. Surely the students misunderstood what had been taught. However, since that day, I have heard more than one teacher incorrectly tell students to do all the multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction in that order from left to right. Those teachers put the students’ next teachers in a catch-22:

That is why I prefer to keep “my dear Aunt Sally” away from kids. She always shows up at the beginning of the school year when students and teachers are trying to start off on the right foot.  She torments students and immediately causes them to feel bad about themselves or mathematics. She makes them question the teaching of their current teacher or their past teachers. She gets a kick out of making children and even adults feel like there’s no way to understand math:

Why do we allow Aunt Sally to abuse children like this? I want to shout, “please, stop making excuses for my dear, Aunt Sally!”

Let me tell you the story of when I decided not to introduce this abusive aunt to children every again.  It was 2016. I was substituting in a 5th-grade class. I wrote an expression I saw on twitter on the board and told the students it was my favorite order-of-operations problem. Here’s what I wrote:

10 + 9 + 8 × 7 × 6 × 5 – 4 + 321 = 

I, along with my dear Aunt Sally,  encouraged the students to figure it out. The students knew that 8 × 7 was 56. I watched them struggle to multiply 56 by 6 and then by 5. When I mentioned that they could multiply the 6 and the 5 first to get 56 × 30 to make the problem easier, they argued that doing that wasn’t allowed. They said that the order-of-operations demanded that the multiplication be done in ORDER from left to right.

They thought that order-of-operation makes multiplication no longer commutative?!!  How do you counteract that misinformation? After that day, not only do I not invite my dear Aunt Sally to meet my students, but I also avoid the phrase “order-of-operations”!

Order-of-operations is just an ALGORITHM! It doesn’t trump the commutative property, and it doesn’t even have to be used to solve these kinds of problems!

Jo Boaler’s tweet especially applies to this kind of problem and this algorithm.

Besides, are these kinds of problems still necessary since typing on a computer no longer has the same limitations as typing on a typewriter? I hope you think about that! If you insist on using an algorithm, I suggest you use PEMA instead.

Since this is my 1407th post, I’d like to tell you a little bit about that number:

  • 1407 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 1407 = 3 × 7 × 67
  • 1407 has no exponents greater than 1 in its prime factorization, so √1407 cannot be simplified.
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 1, 1, and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 × 2 × 2 = 8. Therefore 1407 has exactly 8 factors.
  • The factors of 1407 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below.

1407 looks interesting when it is written in some other bases:
It’s 111333 in BASE 4,
21112 in BASE 5, and
727 in BASE 14.

1406 Has a Very Cool 4th Root

To find the 4th root of 1406, all you need to do is take its square root twice. The square root of 1406 is 37.4966665185. . .

Take the square root of that and you get a decimal starting with 6.12345…

That’s pretty cool. I’m glad Stetson.edu let me know about it!

Here’s a little more about the number 1406:

  • 1406 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 1406 = 2 × 19 × 37
  • 1406 has no exponents greater than 1 in its prime factorization, so √1406 cannot be simplified.
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 1, 1, and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 × 2 × 2 = 8. Therefore 1406 has exactly 8 factors.
  • The factors of 1406 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below.

1406 is the sum of the first 37 EVEN numbers because 37 × 38=1406.

1406 is the hypotenuse of a Pythagorean triple:
456-1330-1406 which is (12-35-37) times 38

1405 is the Sum of Squares

I knew that 1405 was the sum of two consecutive squares, but Stetson.edu let me know that it was the sum of even more consecutive squares, ELEVEN to be exact!

Because it is the sum of the 26th and the 27th squares, 1405 is also the 27th centered square number. Here are 1405 tiny squares illustrating that fact:

Here’s more about the number 1405:

  • 1405 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 1405 = 5 × 281
  • 1405 has no exponents greater than 1 in its prime factorization, so √1405 cannot be simplified.
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 1, and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 × 2 = 4. Therefore 1405 has exactly 4 factors.
  • The factors of 1405 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below.

I’ve mentioned one of these before, but 1405 is the sum of TWO squares in TWO ways:
27² + 26² = 1405
37² + 6² = 1405

1405 is also the hypotenuse of FOUR Pythagorean triples:
53-1404-1405 calculated from 27² – 26², 2(27)(26), 27² + 26²
444-1333-1405 calculated from 2(37)(6), 37² – 6², 37² + 6²
800-1155-1405 which is 5 times (160-231-281)
843-1124-1405 which is (3-4-5) times 281

1404 Texas Tessellation

I recently visited family members in Texas. My daughter-in-law is awesome at both mathematics and quilting. My photo does not do her work justice, but Texas is tessellated in this quilt! She also carefully chose the fabrics she pieced together. Do they remind you of anything for which Texas is famous?

Someone else designed the pattern, but piecing these pieces together was not the easiest sewing project.

I wondered if anyone else had thought to tessellate Texas and found a couple of examples on twitter. As this first one asked, should we call this Texellation?

Now I’ll tell you something about the number 1404:

  • 1404 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 1404 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 13, which can be written 1404 = 2² × 3³ × 13
  • 1404 has at least one exponent greater than 1 in its prime factorization so √1404 can be simplified. Taking the factor pair from the factor pair table below with the largest square number factor, we get √1404 = (√36)(√39) = 6√39
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 2, 3, and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (2 + 1)(3 + 1)(1 + 1) = 3 × 4 × 2 = 24. Therefore 1404 has exactly 24 factors.
  • The factors of 1404 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below.

1404 is the hypotenuse of a Pythagorean triple:
540-1296-1404 which is (5-12-13) times 108

Since 1404 has so many factors, it also has MANY different factor trees. Here are four of them mixed in with some Texas tessellations!

Prime Factorization of the Hundred Numbers up to 1400

Almost one-third of the numbers from 1301 to 1400 have 4 factors. Only 1/5 of the numbers have 8 factors.

Since 1/3 is significantly bigger than 1/5, the amount of factors for these numbers wouldn’t make a very exciting horse race. Here is the breakdown:

  • 11 numbers had 2 factors
  • 1 number had 3 factors
  • 32 numbers had 4 factors
  • 7 numbers had 6 factors
  • 20 numbers had 8 factors
  • 2 numbers had 10 factors
  • 13 numbers had 12 factors
  • 4 numbers had 16 factors
  • 1 number had 18 factors
  • 2 numbers had 20 factors
  • 5 numbers had 24 factors
  • 1 number had 28 factors
  • 1 number had 32 factors

The rosy looking numbers have square roots that can be simplified, and that is only 37% of the numbers listed.

You may not expect it, but 1400 is one of the numbers with 24 factors. Let me tell you a little bit about 1400 and why it has so many factors:

  • 1400 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 1400 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 5 × 5 × 7, which can be written 1400 = 2³ × 5² × 7
  • 1400 has at least one exponent greater than 1 in its prime factorization so √1400 can be simplified. Taking the factor pair from the factor pair table below with the largest square number factor, we get √1400 = (√100)(√14) = 10√14
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 3, 2, and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (3 + 1)(2 + 1)(1 + 1) = 4 × 3 × 2 = 24. Therefore 1400 has exactly 24 factors.
  • The factors of 1400 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below.

1400 is the hypotenuse of TWO Pythagorean triples:
392-1344-1400 which is (7-24-25) times 56
840-1120-1400 which is (3-4-5) times 280

31 Flavors of 1396

The first 52 triangular numbers are 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28, 36, 45, 55, 66, 78, 91, 105, 120, 136, 153, 171, 190, 210, 231, 253, 276, 300, 325, 351, 378, 406, 435, 465, 496, 528, 561, 595, 630, 666, 703, 741, 780, 820, 861, 903, 946, 990, 1035, 1081, 1128, 1176, 1225, 1275, 1326, 1378.

Stetson.edu informs us that 1396 can be written as the sum of three triangular numbers in 31 different ways. It is the smallest number that can make that claim!

That 31st way is written with three consecutive triangular numbers, 435, 465, and 496, which are the 29th, 30th, and 31st triangular numbers respectively. That fact makes 1396 the 31st Centered Triangular Number as well!

That is, at least, 1396 is the 31st number on the list. You can also calculate it using this formula: [3(30²) + 3(30) + 2]/2 = 1396

Here’s more about the number 1396:

  • 1396 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 1396 = 2 × 2 × 349, which can be written 1396 = 2² × 349
  • 1396 has at least one exponent greater than 1 in its prime factorization so √1396 can be simplified. Taking the factor pair from the factor pair table below with the largest square number factor, we get √1396 = (√4)(√349) = 2√349
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 2 and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (2 + 1)(1 + 1) = 3 × 2 = 6. Therefore 1396 has exactly 6 factors.
  • The factors of 1396 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below.

1396 is the sum of two squares:
36² + 10² = 1396

1396 is the hypotenuse of a Pythagorean triple:
720-1196-1396 calculated from 2(36)(10), 36² – 10², 36² + 10²

1395 and Level 2

1391 is the 22nd Friedman number, and there are TWO reasons why!

See! Factoring numbers can be such an exciting adventure! Can you find the factors for this puzzle?

Print the puzzles or type the solution in this excel file: 12 Factors 1389-1403\

Here’s more about the number 1395:

  • 1395 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 1395 = 3 × 3 × 5 × 31, which can be written 1395 = 3² × 5 × 31
  • 1395 has at least one exponent greater than 1 in its prime factorization so √1395 can be simplified. Taking the factor pair from the factor pair table below with the largest square number factor, we get √1395 = (√9)(√155) = 3√155
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 2, 1, and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (2 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 3 × 2 × 2 = 12. Therefore 1395 has exactly 12 factors.
  • The factors of 1395 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below.

You can see the reasons 1395 is the 22nd Friedman numbers in these factor pairs:
15 × 93 = 1395
45 × 31 = 5×9×31 = 1395, that one uses the digits in reverse order!

1395 is also the hypotenuse of a Pythagorean triple:
837-1116-1395 which is (3-4-5) times 279

 

1392 and Pythagorean Triples

1392 is the hypotenuse of ONE Pythagorean triple, 960-1008-1392.

However, 1392 is the leg of so many Pythagorean triples, that it is possible I haven’t listed them all in this graphic:


Why is it the hypotenuse only once, but it is a leg so many times?

Because of its factors!

  • 1392 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 1392 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × 29, which can be written 1392 = 2⁴ × 3 × 29
  • 1392 has at least one exponent greater than 1 in its prime factorization so √1392 can be simplified. Taking the factor pair from the factor pair table below with the largest square number factor, we get √1392 = (√16)(√87) = 4√87
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 4, 1 and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (4 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 5 × 2 × 2 = 20. Therefore 1392 has exactly 20 factors.
  • The factors of 1392 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below.

1392 has only one prime factor that leaves a remainder of one when it is divided by four. That factor is 29. It makes 960-1008-1392 simply (20-21-29) times 48. Easy Peasy.

ONE of the reasons it is a leg so many times is because several of its factors are in primitive Pythagorean triples, and multiplying those triples by that factor’s factor pair gives us a triple with 1392 as a leg:

  • (3-4-5) times 464 is (1392-1856-2320)
  • (3-4-5) times 348 is (1044-1392-1740)
  • (8-15-17) times 174 is (1392-2610-2958)
  • (5-12-13) times 116
  • (12-35-37) times 116, and so on

Another reason is every Pythagorean triple can be written in this form 2ab, a²-b², a²+b², and 1392 = 2(696)(1) or 2(348)(2) or 2(232)(3) or 2(174)(4) and so on.

The last reason is that since 1392 has six factor pairs in which both factors are even, it can be written as a²-b²: (The average of the two numbers in the factor pair gives us the first number to be squared. Subtract the second number from it to get the second number to be squared.)

  • 696 and 2 give us 349² – 347² = 1392
  • 348 and 4 give us 176² – 172² = 1392
  • 232 and 6 give us 119² – 113² = 1392
  • 174 and 8 give us 91² – 83² = 1392
  • 116 and 12 give us 64² – 52² = 1392
  • 58 and 24 give us 41² – 17² = 1392

Some of the triples can be found by more than one of the processes listed above. It can be very confusing to keep track of them all. That is why I usually only write when a number is the hypotenuse of a triple and not when it is a leg.

 

 

1390 Find the Factors (ax±b)(cx±d)

I liked making a puzzle using trinomials earlier today. This one will take more skill to solve even though it contains fewer trinomials. Some of the factors will have negative numbers, and the leading coefficients of the trinomials are not 1.

In this puzzle, you can see the number 24 twice. It needs to be factored to solve the puzzle. It might be 3 × 8 or 4 × 6, but it can’t be 1 × 24 or 2 × 12 because for this puzzle ALL of the factors of 24 have to be non-zero integers from -10 to +10.

Print the puzzles or type the solution in this excel file: 12 Factors 1389-1403

Every factor must appear once in the first column and once in the top row. So if you put 2x + 5 in the top row, you will also have to put 2x + 5 somewhere in the first column as well.

Sometimes all of the terms in the trinomial have a common factor and can, therefore, be factored further, but don’t worry about that right now.

You will have to find all of the factors in the puzzle before you can figure out what the missing clue should be. That’s about all the mystery I can put in a puzzle like this. Good luck with it!

Since this is different than any other puzzle I’ve ever published, you can see the solution here:

Now I’ll share some information about the number 1390:

  • 1390 is a composite number.
  • Prime factorization: 1390 = 2 × 5 × 139
  • 1390 has no exponents greater than 1 in its prime factorization, so √1390 cannot be simplified.
  • The exponents in the prime factorization are 1, 1, and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 × 2 × 2 = 8. Therefore 1390 has exactly 8 factors.
  • The factors of 1390 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below.

1390 is the hypotenuse of a Pythagorean triple:
834-1112-1390 which is (3-4-5) times 278

1390 is 102345 in BASE 6 making it the smallest number to use all the digits less than 6 in base 6. Thank you Stetson.edu for that reminder.