# 1554 What Patterns Do You See?

### Today’s Puzzle:

I like multiples of 111, including 1554. What cool patterns do you notice if a 2-digit number is multiplied by 111 as shown in the graphic below: ### A Factor Tree for 1554:

Here’s a factor tree for 1554 that begins with the factor pair 14 × 111: ### Factors of 1554:

• 1554 is a composite number.
• Prime factorization: 1554 = 2 × 3 × 7 × 37
• 1554 has no exponents greater than 1 in its prime factorization, so √1554 cannot be simplified.
• The exponents in the prime factorization are 1, 1, 1, and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 16. Therefore 1554 has exactly 16 factors.
• The factors of 1554 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below. ### More about the Number 1554:

1554 is the hypotenuse of a Pythagorean triple:
504-1470-1554, which is (12-35-37) times 42.

# 1548 Puzzling Gerrymandering Questions

### Today’s Puzzle:

If you had two types of candy and four kids, this is a good way to divide the candy. But if you had two types of voters and four congressional districts, is it a fair way to determine those congressional districts? Gerrymandering happens when congressional district boundaries are drawn to give an advantage to one political party over another. The green party might be given an advantage in the drawing above, but does simply dividing the graphic into four quadrants give an advantage to the yellow party?

One article complains that one of the worst examples of gerrymandering is a congressional district shaped like a duck, but it is unclear if that duck is keeping like-minded people together or keeping them apart. or It is unclear to us if like-minded people were grouped together, but we can be certain that it was very clear to those who drew the boundaries.

Each of the graphics above had 12 yellow sections and 36 green sections. If you think it is only fair to let like-minded people elect someone who thinks like them,  how should congressional boundaries be drawn if the 12 yellow sections and the 36 green sections look like this? No matter how you draw the boundaries, green will be in the majority in each congressional district, and most likely the majority will choose each district’s representative. But if you believe that gerrymandering is justified to benefit like-minded people, should those people NOT be represented by a like-minded representative simply because they don’t live next to each other?

These are good questions to puzzle over. Denise Gaskins has created the Gerrymandering Project to help you manipulate a 10 by 10 map of your creation in a variety of ways. This project will help every voter and future voter understand the mathematics and the politics of drawing boundaries on a larger scale. Check it out!

### Factors of 1548:

• 1548 is a composite number.
• Prime factorization: 1548 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 × 43, which can be written 1548 = 2² × 3² × 43
• 1548 has at least one exponent greater than 1 in its prime factorization so √1548 can be simplified. Taking the factor pair from the factor pair table below with the largest square number factor, we get √1548 = (√36)(√43) = 6√43
• The exponents in the prime factorization are 2, 2, and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (2 + 1)(2 + 1)(1 + 1) = 3 × 3 × 2 = 18. Therefore 1548 has exactly 18 factors.
• The factors of 1548 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below. ### Factor Tree for 1548:

The last two digits of 1548 are a multiple of 4, so 1548 is divisible by 4.
1 + 5 + 4 + 8 = 18, a multiple of 9, so 1548 is divisible by 9.

Here’s how I used those two facts to make an autumn factor tree for 1548: ### More about the Number 1548:

1548 is the difference of two squares in three different ways:
388² – 386² = 1548,
132² – 126² = 1548, and
52² – 34²  = 1548.

# 1547 is a Hexagonal Pyramidal Number

### Today’s Puzzle:

1547 is the 13th hexagonal pyramidal number. Looking at the graphic that I made below of 1547 tiny squares, can you determine what the prime factorization of 1547 is? ### Factors of 1547:

• 1547 is a composite number.
• Prime factorization: 1547 = 7 × 13 × 17.
• 1547 has no exponents greater than 1 in its prime factorization, so √1547 cannot be simplified.
• The exponents in the prime factorization are 1, 1, and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 × 2 × 2 = 8. Therefore 1547 has exactly 8 factors.
• The factors of 1547 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below. ### More about the Number 1547:

1547 is the hypotenuse of FOUR Pythagorean triples:
147-1540-1547, which is 7 times (21-220-221),
595-1428-1547, which is (5-12-13) times 119,
728-1365-1547, which is (8-15-17) times 91, and
980-1197-1547, which is 7 times (140-171-221).

# 1545 The Complete Message Made with Puzzle Letters

### The Puzzles:

The last six Find the Factors Puzzles spelled out this message: I voted. I like the quote from Larry J. Sabato, “Every election is determined by the people who show up.” My vote will matter, and so will yours. You can also print these puzzles from this excel file: Taxman & 1537-1544

American politics has become rather ugly, but voting is still important.

I am thrilled that I was able to vote for one of these candidates for governor of Utah, and I am very happy that one of them will become my governor even if it isn’t the same person I voted for.

### Factors of 1545:

• 1545 is a composite number.
• Prime factorization: 1545 = 3 × 5 × 309.
• 1545 has no exponents greater than 1 in its prime factorization, so √1545 cannot be simplified.
• The exponents in the prime factorization are 1, 1, and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 × 2 × 2 = 8. Therefore 1545 has exactly 8 factors.
• The factors of 1545 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below. ### Another Fact about the Number 1545:

1545 is the hypotenuse of a Pythagorean triple:
927-1236-1545, which is (3-4-5) times 309.

# 1541 is the 23rd Octagonal Number

### Today’s Puzzle:

Into which geometric shape can you arrange 1541 tiny squares?

The answer is an octagon as illustrated below. Can you divide that octagon into 6 triangles, 5 of them representing the 22nd triangular number and 1 of them representing the 23rd?

It is possible because 5(22·23)/2 + (23·24)/2 = 1541.

We can simplify the left side of the equal sign:
5(22·23)/2 + (23·24)/2 =
5(11·23) + (23·12) =
23(5·11) + 23(12) =
23(55 + 12) =
23(67) = 1541

### Factors of 1541:

• 1541 is a composite number.
• Prime factorization: 1541 = 23 × 67.
• 1541 has no exponents greater than 1 in its prime factorization, so √1541 cannot be simplified.
• The exponents in the prime factorization are 1 and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 × 2 = 4. Therefore 1541 has exactly 4 factors.
• The factors of 1541 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below. ### Another Fact about the Number 1541:

1541 is the difference of two squares in two different ways:
771² – 770² = 1541 (Not coincidently, 770 + 771 = 1541), and
45² – 22² = 1541.

# How Much of My \$1540 Will The Taxman Get?

### The Taxman Game

You might think that the picture below is just the numbers from 1 to 55 arranged in a 5×11 rectangle.

It’s really PLAY MONEY, one bill in each denomination from 1 to 55. If you add up the total value of all this play money, you will get 1540 because the sum of the numbers from 1 to 55 is 1540. Most of that 1540 in play money can be yours to keep if you outsmart THE TAXMAN.

You can take any bill that you want, but The Taxman has to get paid every time you do. The Taxman will get ALL the available factors of the bill you take. If there isn’t at least one bill on hand that is a factor of your chosen bill, then you can’t take that bill. When none of the bills left are factors of any of the other bills that are left, The Taxman gets ALL the remaining bills. The value of those bills could add up quickly, and that’s how The Taxman might outsmart you.

You can print this excel file to play the Taxman game: Taxman & 1537-1544 It has all the play money bills from 1 to 100, and all the factors are typed on the top of the bills!

The factors at the top of each bill make it possible to play the game even if you don’t know how to multiply or divide yet. My granddaughter learned to play the game sometime around her eighth birthday. Before tackling 55 bills, she learned what to do for a smaller number of bills. I told her:
If 1 is the only bill, The Taxman wins.
If 1, 2 are the only bills, you take the 2, The Taxman gets the 1, and you win.
If 1, 2, 3 are the only bills, the best you can do is a draw (1 + 2 = 3),
But if there are at least four bills, it is possible to win every time.

She played the game over and over adding one more bill to the game each time she played. She enjoyed it very much and played it over 20 times until bedtime required her to stop. Each time she played we talked about how she would arrange the cards in a rectangle. For example, if she used cards 1 – 6, she would look at the factors of 6 and decide on a 2 × 3 rectangle or a 1 × 6 rectangle.

Knowing I wanted to write this post about the 55th triangular number (1540), I had her jump to using 55 bills the next day, but I helped her with it a little. We didn’t want to just win the game, we wanted to make it so The Taxman would get as little money as possible. Here is the final order of what we took and what The Taxman got. Laying it out like that made it easy to have do-overs when needed.

### A Way to Keep Score When Playing Taxman:

When it was time to score the game, instead of adding up all the numbers to see if we took more than The Taxman, we found smaller sums that equaled as many of our choices as we could as illustrated below. For example,  47 + 6 = 53, so there was no need to add 47 + 6 to The Taxman’s total or to add 53 to ours. I found it enjoyable finding all those sums, but it isn’t necessarily easy for a child to do. After arranging all those sums on the table, we were able to see that we scored
35 + 39 + 38 + 12 + 30 + 50 + 24 + 48 + 42 = 318 more than The Taxman did.

We can use algebra to figure out exactly how much of our 1540 in play money we get to keep.
If The Taxman got X of the play money, we kept X + 318 of it, and
X + X + 318 = 1540,
2X + 318 = 1540,
2X + 318 – 318 = 1540 – 318,
2X = 1222,
X = 611, that’s what The Taxman got.
We kept 611 + 318 = 929 of our play money.

What percentage of the play money did The Taxman get?
611/1540 ≈ 0.40 which is 40%. Wow, that’s a lot!

### Factors of 1540:

• 1540 is a composite number.
• Prime factorization: 1540 = 2 × 2 × 5 × 7 × 11, which can be written 1540 = 2² × 5 × 7 × 11
• 1540 has at least one exponent greater than 1 in its prime factorization so √1540 can be simplified. Taking the factor pair from the factor pair table below with the largest square number factor, we get √1540 = (√4)(√385) = 2√385
• The exponents in the prime factorization are 2, 1, 1, and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (2 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 3 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 24. Therefore 1540 has exactly 24 factors.
• The factors of 1540 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below. ### Factor Cake for 1540:

1540 has lots of prime factors with 11 being the greatest so it makes a lovely factor cake: ### What Kind of Shape Is 1540 in?

I know that 1540 = 55×56÷2 so, 1540 is the 55th triangular number. Guess what? Since 55 is also a triangular number (55 = 10×11÷2), we could have arranged the play money bills in a triangle like this instead of a 5 × 11 rectangle. 1540 is not only the 55th triangular number, but it is also the sum of the first 20 triangular numbers:

1+3+6+10+15+21+28+36+45+55+66+78+91+105+120+136+153+171+190+210 = 1540.

If you stack those twenty triangular numbers from smallest to biggest, you will get something shaped like a tetrahedron. That’s why we say that 1540 is the 20th tetrahedral number. We can also use a formula for the 20th tetrahedral number:
20(21)(22)/6 = 1540.

1540 is also the 28th hexagonal number. (All hexagonal numbers are also triangular numbers. That’s why it’s the 2(28)-1 = 55th triangular number.) It is the 28th hexagonal number because 2(28²) – 28 = 1540. 1540 is the 20th decagonal number because 4(20²) – 3(20) = 1540. I didn’t make a visual, but 1540 is also the19th centered nonagonal number.
That’s because
3 × 19 = 57 and (57 – 2)(57 – 1)/2 = 1540.

1540 is also the hypotenuse of a Pythagorean triple triangle:
924-1232-1540 which is (3-4-5) times 308.

1540 is quite the shape-shifter number, isn’t it!

# 1534 Dem Bones

### Today’s Puzzle:

You’ve probably heard someone sing about Dem Bones before. It is a song that describes how bones in the body are connected to each other. Ezekiel 37:1-14 was the inspiration for the lyrics, and the song is the inspiration for today’s mystery level puzzle: ### Factors of 1534:

• 1534 is a composite number.
• Prime factorization: 1534 = 2 × 13 × 59.
• 1534 has no exponents greater than 1 in its prime factorization, so √1534 cannot be simplified.
• The exponents in the prime factorization are 1, 1, and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) = 2 × 2 × 2 = 8. Therefore 1534 has exactly 8 factors.
• The factors of 1534 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below. ### More Facts about the Number 1534:

1534 is the hypotenuse of a Pythagorean triple:
590-1416-1534 which is (5-12-13) times 118.

1534 is 4(7³) + 3(7²) + 2(7¹) + 1(7º). That means it is 4321 in base 7.

# 1532 Don’t Let This Puzzle Spook You!

### Today’s Puzzle:

If this little ghost prowls your neighborhood this Halloween, don’t let it spook you. Sure, it is a level 6 puzzle, but if you stick to using logic from start to finish, you’ll know the most about this ghost! Here’s the same puzzle minus the embellishments: If you know what a normal distribution is, then you should enjoy this statistics joke:

### Factors of 1532:

• 1532 is a composite number.
• Prime factorization: 1532 = 2 × 2 × 383, which can be written 1532 = 2² × 383
• 1532 has at least one exponent greater than 1 in its prime factorization so √1532 can be simplified. Taking the factor pair from the factor pair table below with the largest square number factor, we get √1532 = (√4)(√383) = 2√383
• The exponents in the prime factorization are 2 and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (2 + 1)(1 + 1) = 3 × 2 = 6. Therefore 1532 has exactly 6 factors.
• The factors of 1532 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below. ### More about the Number 1532:

1532 = 2 × 383 × 2. That factorization looks the same frontwards or backward.

1532 can be written as the difference of two squares:
384² – 382² = 1532.

# 1531 Spider’s Web or Not?

### Today’s Puzzle:

Even though1531 is a prime number, what geometric shape can you arrange 1531 tiny squares into?

As you look at the graphic below, ask yourself a couple of questions. What do you notice? What do you wonder? You might think that you are looking at a spider’s web with the numbers 1, 11, 31, 61, 101, 151, 211, 281, 361, 451, 551, 661, 781, 911, 1051, 1201, 1361, and 1531 trapped inside.

All of those numbers are centered decagonal numbers. My puzzle for you today is: If it were a spider’s web, and a spider ate the last digit of each of those centered decagonal numbers, what kind of figurate number would be left behind in every case?

### Factors of 1531:

• 1531 is a prime number.
• Prime factorization: 1531 is prime.
• 1531 has no exponents greater than 1 in its prime factorization, so √1531 cannot be simplified.
• The exponent in the prime factorization is 1. Adding one to that exponent we get (1 + 1) = 2. Therefore 1531 has exactly 2 factors.
• The factors of 1531 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below.

How do we know that 1531 is a prime number? If 1531 were not a prime number, then it would be divisible by at least one prime number less than or equal to √1531. Since 1531 cannot be divided evenly by 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, or 37, we know that 1531 is a prime number. ### Another Fact about the Number 1531:

OEIS.org informs us that 1531 = 5494153169521.

# 1525 Challenge Puzzle

### Today’s puzzle:

There is plenty to challenge you in solving this puzzle, but there are also quite a few very helpful clues. Just remember to use logic and have fun with it! Print the puzzles or type the solution in this excel file: 12 Factors 1511-1525

### Factors of 1525:

• 1525 is a composite number.
• Prime factorization: 1525 = 5 × 5 × 61, which can be written 1525 = 5² × 61
• 1525 has at least one exponent greater than 1 in its prime factorization so √1525 can be simplified. Taking the factor pair from the factor pair table below with the largest square number factor, we get √1525 = (√25)(√61) = 5√61
• The exponents in the prime factorization are 2 and 1. Adding one to each exponent and multiplying we get (2 + 1)(1 + 1) = 3 × 2 = 6. Therefore 1525 has exactly 6 factors.
• The factors of 1525 are outlined with their factor pair partners in the graphic below. ### More about the Number 1525:

1525 is the sum of two squares in two different ways:
39² + 2² = 1525
38² + 9² = 1525

1525 is the hypotenuse of a Pythagorean triple in SEVEN different ways!
156-1517-1525, calculated from 2(39)( 2), 39² – 2², 39² + 2²,
275-1500-1525, which is 25 times (11-60-61),
427-1464-1525, which is (7-24-25) times 61,
680-1365-1525, which is 5 times (136-273-305)
684-1363-1525, calculated from 2(38)( 9), 38² – 9², 38² + 9²,
915-1220-1525, which is (3-4-5) times 305, and
1035-1120-1525, which is 5 times (207-224-305).

1525 is also the difference of two squares in two different ways:
763² – 762² = 1525,
155² – 150² = 1525, and
43² – 18² = 1525.

1525 is the 25th heptagonal number because
(5(25²)-3(25))/2 = 1525.
That means you can make a 7-sided figure out of 1525 dots where two of the sides are shared with all the previous heptagons.